Pinus nigra Arn. bark extracts from Mokra gora (MG) and Tara mountains were analyzed with regard to their polyphenolic profile and antioxidative and antiproliferative activity. The ethanol extract from MG showed the highest phenolic, flavonoid, tannin, and proanthocyanidin content when compared with the acetone and methanol extracts from both sites. The same extract exhibited the highest ABTS (2,2ʹ-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) radical scavenging ability and total antioxidant activity (TAA). On the basis of high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, catechin, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids were predominantly present in the MG extracts. The ethanol extract from MG was rich in syringic acid, epicatechin and its derivatives, and ferulic acid and its derivatives. The bark extracts also exerted a high cytotoxic bioactivity against all evaluated cell lines (HeLa, MCF7, HT-29, and MRC-5). The antiproliferative activity of P. nigra bark is probably related to the ferulic acid content and its synergistic activity to caffeic acid and taxifolin. The antioxidative role of the presented phenols was confirmed through the obtained significant linear correlation between the total phenolic content and DPPH (r = .934) as well as the FRAP% of the extracts (r = .948). Also, the TAA significantly depended on the proanthocyanidins (r = .902) and tannin contents (r = .914). The composition of the presented compounds could be related to promising antioxidant and antiproliferative efficacy of MG bark.