Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between mental toughness and competitive performance of young female basketball players. Materials and methods. The sample of 38 female basketball players who were under 16 years old and played for the four best-ranked basketball clubs in the highest league of Serbia was recruited. Their mental toughness was evaluated via mental toughness questionnaire (MTQ48) and their performance index rating was evaluated by their season statistics obtained from the official web page of the Serbian Basketball Association. Results. Correlation analysis revealed a significant association of performance index rating with mental toughness and its constituents such as control and confidence. Conclusion. Regression analysis reinforced the notion of association of performance index rating and mental toughness, further reflecting in significant differences in mental toughness between those who performed low, medium and high in performance index rating.